The United States Remains in Compliance with the INF Treaty

The United States Remains in Compliance with the INF Treaty
Brussels, Belgium – The United States is in full compliance with its Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty obligations, as NATO affirmed in the 2018 NATO Brussels Summit Declaration.
The Russian Federation has raised three areas of concern regarding U.S. compliance with its obligations: the Aegis Ashore Ballistic Missile Defense system; ballistic target missiles; and armed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
The United States has repeatedly engaged Russian officials in multiple venues including the Treaty’s Special Verification Commission, or SVC, to explain why U.S. actions in these areas are in compliance.
The United States has consistently addressed the Russian Federation’s questions in a transparent, substantive, and constructive manner.
Aegis Ashore Missile Defense Systems
The Aegis Ashore missile defense system is fully consistent with U.S. obligations under the INF Treaty. The system is only capable of launching defensive interceptor missiles, such as the SM- 3.
o The SM-3 interceptor missile is a type of missile that has been developed and tested solely to intercept and counter objects not located on the surface of the Earth.
o Under paragraph 3 of Article VII of the INF Treaty, an interceptor missile of this type is not a missile subject to the INF Treaty.
The Aegis Ashore Missile Defense System does not have an offensive ground-launched ballistic or cruise missile capability. Specifically, the system lacks the software, fire control hardware, support equipment, and other infrastructure needed to launch offensive ballistic or cruise missiles such as the Tomahawk. Moreover, the defensive nature of the Aegis Ashore sites is documented in U.S. basing agreements with the host nations of Romania and Poland.
Although it utilizes some of the same structural components as the sea-based Mk-41 Vertical Launch System installed on ships, the Aegis Ashore vertical launching system is NOT the same launcher as the sea-based MK-41 Vertical Launch System.
Aegis Ashore has never contained, launched, or been tested for launching a missile that is prohibited by the INF Treaty. As a result, the system is not a prohibited launcher.
Ballistic Target Missiles
The Russian Federation first raised concerns about U.S. ballistic target missiles approximately 19 years ago. At that time, the United States addressed these concerns in great detail in the SVC.
The INF Treaty allows for the use of otherwise-prohibited booster systems for research and development purposes, including their use as targets for missile defense tests. Specifically, Paragraph 12 of Article VII provides that launches of booster systems shall NOT be considered to be flight-testing of INF Treaty-prohibited ballistic missiles, provided that certain conditions are met.
o The stages used in the booster system must be existing types of booster stages as of June 1, 1988;
o The stages used in the booster system must be different from stages used in the missiles that were originally listed in Article III of the INF Treaty—that is, the INF Treaty-range missiles that were in existence at the time the Treaty entered into force on June 1, 1988;
o The booster systems being used must be used only for research and development purposes to test objects other than the booster systems themselves—in other words, the missile must not be used to test its own booster system;
o The aggregate number of launchers for such booster systems must not exceed 35 for any Party at any given time; and,
o These launchers must be fixed, above ground, and located only at declared research and development launch sites.
The United States has acted within these parameters for all activities relating to ballistic target missiles, and provided notification and documentation to the Russian Federation. The purpose of U.S. ballistic target missile launches is research and development of U.S. missile defense systems, not the development of the target missiles themselves.
Armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
The Russian Federation first raised concerns about armed UAVs under the INF Treaty over 16 years ago in the INF Treaty’s Special Verification Commission (SVC). At that time, the United States addressed these concerns in great detail, explaining why U.S. actions are fully consistent with the Treaty.
The INF Treaty poses no restrictions on the testing, production, or possession of two-way, reusable, armed UAVs. In the U.S. view, the term “missile” as used in the Treaty applies to one-way systems.
The United States employs a number of armed versions of UAVs, including the Hunter, Shadow, Predator, Gray Eagle, and Reaper UAVs. All of these are two-way, reusable systems and, as a result, are not subject to the INF Treaty.
Moreover, Russian firms have pursued the development of armed UAVs for years and it is our understanding that the Russian Federation has also supported the development of armed UAVs.
Source: U.S. Mission to NATO
By U.S. Mission to NATO | 8 February, 2019 | Topics: Press Releases
Republished by Intell News Romania in English on February 10, 2019

NATO Headquarters, source of photo: the Romanian Intelligence Service(SRI)
About Claudiu Victor Gheorghiu 129 Articles
My name is GHEORGHIU CLAUDIU VICTOR and I was born in October 1967 in Bucharest. In 1998 I took the master degree at University from Bucharest , the Faculty of History- universal old history section- with theme (Constantine the Great and Christianity) at professor LIGIA BARZU. In 1991 I graduated Art School , Painting section, with TITU DRAGUTESCU. I painted sacred pictures from 1990, in technique tempera or tempera with egg on wood. In the period 2004-2016, I had the honor to have the encouragements, the advices, the friendship of the Master PAUL GHERASIM(1925-2016), my mentor, the founder of the "Prolog" group. During the period 1992-1994 I was artistic advisor at Coleus contemporary art gallery . I am titular member of the Association Branch of Religious Plastic Arts and Restoration - AFAPRR of UAP from Romania: Visual Artists’ Union from Romania from April 17, 2019, admitted by contest, as well as I was trainee member during the period 2016-2019, admitted by contest. I was member in Plastic Background(FP) belong Visual Artists’ Union from Romania(UAP) from 7th of December 2000, admitted by contest. From 25th of May 2015 I was elected Media advisor of the Steering Committee of the Association Branch of Religious Plastic Arts and Restoration : AFAPRR of UAP from Romania: Visual Artists’ Union from Romania. From 2014 I am member Visarta( from March 31, 2017, I was elected in the Steering Committee of Visarta, during the period 2017-2022), the Romanian Visual Arts Copyright Collecting Society. I had 4 Personal Exhibitions with sacred art, organized by UAP from Romania- Visual Artists’ Union from Romania, in Bucharest (2001, 2003, 2004 at ArTei Gallery, 2007 at Galateea Gallery), also another two at Silva Gallery in Busteni(2007-2008), Sabion Gallery in Bucharest(2019, together with Cristina Georgescu). I had also 2 Personal Exhibitions in Italy : I was Honor Guest, representing Romania, with sacred art, June 2003 at Pisa and in October 2006 ”The icons, sacred pictures in contemporary world” at Viadana(Mantua). I won some prizes in Italy and I participated, admitted by contest, at some art fairs and international exhibitions around the world, representing Romania: most of them in Italy(Pompeii, Pisa, Turin, Milan, Reggio Emilia, Bari, Viadana, Mantua), but also in France, Germany, Greece, Japan, Peru, South Korea, Switzerland; in secondary also I am cultural journalist: from May 2015 to January 2016 I was Contributing Editor at Culture (Fine Arts, Exhibitions, History, Religion) at the newspaper Jurnalul Bucureştiului. From 17th of January 2016 I was advanced Senior Editor at the same newspaper, which has been called since April 2020 the Jurnalul Bucureştiului ,,Le Petit Parisien”, with a different leadership and a different format. From 1st of November 2015 to 31st of December 2016 I was Contributing Editor and Thematic Advisor at News Agency Lacasuri Ortodoxe and Press service LO News. From 1st of January 2016 I am Senior Editor of the Intell News(Global news, press and event analysis) and coordinator of the Culture pages (in Romanian and English, named Intell News Romania). From May 3, 2019, I am also publisher commentator at the newspaper Ultima Oră.